Hemp Made Bio-Composites

Arta Seile, Dana Belakova

Abstract


Hemp cultivation is one of the possibilities to use agricultural land of Latvia. Mechanical and physical properties of hemp fiber and its chemical structure is suitable for using as a reinforcement, but polypropilene (PP) fibers and PolyLactic Acid (PLA) fibers as a matrix for bio-composites. Compression molding is the most common composite processing technology. Composites with the content of 20 % – 40% of natural fiber could provide optimal mechanical properties. The demand for bio-composites with improved properties will be increasing in the future. Sandwich structure of bio-composite is one of the ways to protect natural fiber from heating degradation.

Keywords:

Bio-composites; hemp fibers; polypropilene fibers; PolyLactic Acid fibers; nonwoven

Full Text:

PDF

References


Latvijas Valsts augļkopības institūts. Atskaite-ziņojums par projektu Lauksaimniecības zemes izmantošanas efektivitātes un iespēju novērtējums. 2012.

Eurostat. Other Land: Number of Farms and Areas by Agricultural Size of Farm (UAA) [online]. [viewed 7.10.2013.]. Available from: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ef_powood〈=n Eurostat.

Gross Value Added of the Agricultural Industry – Basic and Producer Prices [online]. [viewed 7.10.2013.]. Available from:

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/download.do?tab=table&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tag00056

Latvijas industriālo kaņepju asociācija. Pamatinformācija un vispārīgi ieteikumi kaņepju audzētājiem. 2011. 1.–3. lpp. [online]. [viewed 02.09.2013.]. Available from: Ieteikumi_audzetajiem_2011_LIKA.pdf

Freivalde, L., Kukle, S., Ulme, A. Salīdzinoša kaņepju šķiedru ilgizturības analīze. Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University. Material Science. Textile and Clothing Technology. Riga: RTU Publishing House, 2010, pp. 134–138. ISSN 1691-3132.

Latvijas industriālo kaņepju asociācijas ziņojums (2013). Nozaru ekspertu ziņojumi, pielikums Nr. 1. Nozare – kaņepes.

Eiropas komisijas lauksaimniecības un lauku attīstītbas ziņojums par liniem un kaņepēm ES [online]. EIHA [viewed 03.09.2013.]. Available from: http://www.eiha.org/attach/553/09-02_C1_Flax_hemp_presentation _26_February_2009_circa.pdf

Rosato, D. Green Automotive Applications Remarkable Variety. 2008. [online]. [viewed 23.04.2014.]. Available from:http://www.omnexus.com/ resources/print.aspx?id=19381

Marrot, L., Lefeuvre, A., Pontoire, B., Bourmaund, A., Baley, C. Analysis of the hemp fiber mechanical properties and their scattering (Fedora 17). Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 51, 2013, pp. 317–327. http://doi.org/2wc

Netravali, N., Chabba, S. Composites get greener. Materials Today – MATER TODAY, 2003, vol. 6 Issue 4, pp. 22–29. http://doi.org/fr59xs

Shahzad, A. Hemp fiber and its composites – a review. Journal of Composite Materials, [online]. 2012, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 973–986 [viewed 22.01.2014.] Available from: http://doi.org/ck7cvw

Müssig, J., Fischer, H., Graupner, N., Drieling, A. Testing Methods for Measuring Physical and Mechanical Fibre Properties (Plant and Animal Fibres). Müssig, J. Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres. A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication. 2010, pp. 301–302.

Johnson, R. M. Biopolymers. Smithers Rapra Technology. 3 p. [online]. [viewed 29.07.2013.]. Available from: http://site.ebrary.com/id/ 10236793?pgd=12

The Essential Chemical Industry, CIEC Promoting Science at the University of York, [online]. [viewed 2.04.2014.]. Available from: http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/polymers/polypropene.html

Faruk, O., Bledzki, A. K., Fink, H.-P., Sain, M. Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibres: 2000 – 2010. Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 37, Issue 11, 2012, pp. 1552–1596. http://doi.org/2wd

Ministru kabineta noteikumi Nr. 272. Noteikumi par tekstilšķiedru sastāva norādīšanu tekstilizstrādājumu marķējumā [online]. [viewed 1.08.2013.]. Available from: http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=106684

Eiropas Komisijas Direktīva 2004/34/EK (2004. gada 23.marts) [online]. [viewed 1.08.2013.]. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl〈=lv&ihmlang=lv&lng1=lv,lv&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=343150:cs

The Sustainability of Nature WorksTM Polylactide Polymers and IngeoTM Polylactide Fibers a: an Update of the Future. Initiated by the 1st International Conference on Bio-based Polymers (ICBP 2003), November 12–14 2003, Saitama, Japan. Macromolecular Bioscience, pp. 551–564.

Camann, A., Dragsbaek, K., Krol ,S., Sandgren, J., Song, D. Properties, Recycling and Alternatives to PE Bags. [online]. [viewed 24.04.2014.]. Available from: http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-030510-145034/unrestricted/Properties,_Recycling_and_Alternatives _to_PE_Bags.pdf

Dukaļska, L., Muižniece-Brasava, S. Dabai draudzīgie, biodegradējamie materiāli. Prezentācija. 34 lpp. [online]. [viewed 9.08.2013.]. Available from: http://Biodegradejamie_mat_Zinatnieku_kafeinica-7.12.2010.pdf

Hu, R., Lim, J.-K. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Completely Biodegradable Hemp Fiber Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites. J Compos. Mater., 2007, vol. 41, no 13, pp. 1655–1669. http://doi.org/fg2bm9

Södergård, A., Stolt, M. Industrial production of high molecular weight poly (lactic acid). Poly (lactic acid): Synthesis, Structures, Properties, Processing, and Applications, edited by Auras R., Lim L.-T., Selke S. E. M. and Tsuji H. John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2010, pp. 27.

Johnson, Brandon, M., Bernel, Zachary, E. Materials Science and Technologies: Biodegradable Materials: Production, Properties and Applications. Rojan P. John, G.S. Anisha, Nimisha R. Nair, et al. Chapter 4: Poly Lactic Acid: An Environmentally Friendly Biopolymer. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., eISBN: 9781621001652, pISBN: 9781611228045, 2011, pp. 251 (83).

Albertsson, A-C., Varma, I. K., Lochab, B., Finne-Wistrand, A., Kumar, K. Design and synthesis of different types of poly (lactic acid). Poly (lactic acid): Synthesis, Structures, Properties, Processing, and Applications, edited by Auras R., Lim L.-T., Selke S. E. M. and Tsuji H., John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2010, pp. 43. http://doi.org/fhq8g6

Van den Oever, M., Bos, H. Composites Based on Natural Resources. Müssig, J. Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres. A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication, 2010, pp. 439–447.

Koronis, G., Silva, A., Fontul, M. A review of adeguate materials for automotive applications. Composites: Part B. 44, 2013, pp. 120–127. http://doi.org/2wf

Thomas, S., Pothan,L. Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites: From Macro to Nanoscale, 2009, pp. 115.

Sawpan, M. A., Pickering, K. L., Fernyhough, A. Hemp Fibre Reinforced Poly (lactic acid) Composites. Advanced Materials Research. vol. 29–30, 2007, pp. 337–340. http://doi.org/cm6t8c

Ashby, M., Johanson, K. Materials and Design. The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design. Elsevier, 2002, p. 188.

Van de Velde K., Kiekens, P. Biopolymers: overview of several properties and consequences on their applications. Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Belgium. 11 Sept. 2011 [online]. [viewed 1.10.2014.]. Available from: http://biogeneral.com/pdfs/bioab_1.pdf

Stewart, R. 2009. Lightweighting the automotive market. Reinforced plastics. March 2009, vol. 53, Issue 2, pp. 14–21. http://doi.org/bkn5zz

Rouison, D, Sain, M, Couturier, M. Resin transfer molding of natural fiber reinforced composites: cure simulation. Composites Science and Technology. 200, vol. 64, Issue 5, pp. 629–644. http://doi.org/b7gz3k

Huber, F., Graupner, T., Müssig, J. Natural Fibre Composite Processing: a Technical Overwiev. Müssig, J. Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres. A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication, 2010, p. 408.

Prömper, E. Natural Fibre – Reinforced Polymers in Automotive Interior Applications. Müssig, J. Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres. A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication, 2010, p. 424.

Piotrowski, S., Carus, M. Natural Fibres in Technical Applications: Market and Trends. Müssig, J. Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres. A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication, 2010, p. 79.

Hargitai, H., Racz, I., Anandjiwala, R. D. Development of Hemp Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene composites. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials. vol. 21, March 2008, pp. 165–174.

Rowell, R.M. A New Generation of Composite Materials from Agro-based Fiber. In: Prasad, P. N., Mark, J. E. and Fai, T. J. (eds). The 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Polymers and Advanced Materials – Polymer and Other Advanced Materials: Emerging Technologies and Business Opportunities. 1995.

Beckermann, G. W., Pickering, K. L. Engineering and evaluation of hemp fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: Fibre treatment and matrix modification. Compos. Part A-Appl. Science and manufacturing, 2008, vol. 39, Issue 6, pp. 979–988. http://doi.org/fqmqdg

Bourmaud, A., Baley, C. Investigations on recycling of hemp and sisal fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2007, vol. 92, Issue 6, pp. 1034–1045. http://doi.org/fv6t6d

Chen, Y., Chiparus, L., Sun, I., Negulescu, I., Parikh, D. V., Calamari, T. A. Natural Fibers for Automotive Nonwoven Composites. Journal of Industrial Textiles. 2005, vol. 35. [online]. [viewed 23.07.2014.]. Available from: http://jit.sagepub.com/content/35/1/47




DOI: 10.7250/mstct.2014.004

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.7250/g634

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.